Selasa, 27 Januari 2009

Low Interest Student Read

Suherli Kusmana

Based on the results of research Program for International Student Assessment, the students' interest in reading our low. If compared with countries in East Asia, Indonesian students, including the lowest. From 42 countries surveyed, Indonesia was ranked the students to-39, slightly above Albania and Peru. The ability of our students are still below the student who was ranked Thailand to-32. Similarly, the control of reading material, our students are able to absorb only 30% of reading material in the texts reading. Why is this fact happened? 

The phenomenon is on the challenge for all parties, including educators, especially teachers who have been certified teachers. As a professional staff of educators, this issue must be a major challenge to find different strategies in order to increase our students' interest read. In the view of modern society, is the ability to read into that determines the success of someone facing the future. The small interest in the students read a little of the knowledge and of course the more difficult the development of modern world. 
Low interest students read, for that do not directly blame the students. Low interest in reading is not a student. The issues that must be observed by the educators and educational institutions and other stakeholders are trying to create a situation that can push up interest in reading it. 
First, stakeholders must have a policy focus on the availability of library facilities in educational institutions. As has been known that with one of the reform is give education to the local government, the must be procurement of school facilities is the responsibility of local governments, including the library facilities and infrastructure. If the central government gives Special Allocation Fund for the provision of education facilities, including books, tools, and multi-media and the utilization of the funds should be held in accordance with the provisions. Each school is given the authority to select and directly buy books that students are required, it is very naive if determined by the manager of policy, or even mismatch. The central government also give School Operational Assistance (BOS) for the purchase of books. Based on the provisions, of this book BOS each school must provide a minimum of 10 textbooks standardized for each grade level and every subject. So, what the policies of local governments as holder of the autonomous areas of education in terms of books in school? 
Second, prioritize education management library facilities in accordance with the standards of facilities and infrastructure that are set by the government. Ideally, all schools are held by the government (district / city) meet the standards of facilities, including the school library. Therefore, the education office district / city as the local government education programs priority the fulfillment of it. Similarly, if the school held by the public, permission from the government should require that the library facilities in accordance with the standard. 
Third, the library management to improve library services are prime. In general, implementing a library in the schools that already have a special room for only a library service at the school. Finally, the time of the students to read only on the day of rest (about 15 minutes) and come home after hours (average about 30 minutes). Students the opportunity to read in the library is very narrow. Ideally, the school library is to serve students outside of school hours, for example, up to at 17.00 WIB, if he has to serve the students' awareness and increase interest in reading them. It seems that the head of each school should promote the readiness of implementing the school library to serve students as a form of customer satisfaction in the quality of integrated management that they hold. 
Fourth, teachers due to give explanations about the benefits of reading to students. Educators must encourage students to dig knowledge not only of the book the package, especially from the LKS clearly not justified by Low of Education Ministry No. 02/2008 used in schools. Teachers should not be bored to continue to motivate students to read before you can dig science, increase the knowledge and insight enrichment students. Based on the results of research, the students do activities in reading, 83% get a job because of the teachers. Only 11% of students read as self-awareness in the increase of knowledge. Therefore, if a teacher is less motivation students to explore additional knowledge from books, the students will not do the activities. 
So, it seems mistaken if students read the low-interest, then students who is wrong. This situation requires a collective awareness of all stakeholders in education, including of course the local governments that have been given autonomy to manage education. Implementation of the decentralization of education must change the paradigm of local governments to education. The policy stakeholders (legislative and executive) must be sure that the means of education is a long-term investment in human resources to develop a reliable and able to compete with the other nations.

Kamis, 20 November 2008

Writing the Scientific Paper

Suherli Kusmana
Activities can be done to communicate orally and in writing. Communicating made orally will be limited by space and time. At the time someone is communicating verbally, the communication is only valid for people who are in a room and can hear all the complaints. Communicate verbally is limited by time, when completed, the speech also finished the communication activities.
Activities can communicate with the writing of space and time. Communicating through writing is not limited by the presence of readers in a room. Communicating through writing should not be written in the time it is created, but the reader can be done at different times, may be the next day, which will come a month or a year to come. Even ten years may be a future writing can still function as a medium of communication. Communicating through writing will be involved interaction between the author with readers only through writing. Readers try to understand the meaning of the author through the paper that appears in a chart in the book or manuscript. From a line of words and sentences is the meaning of communication that made the author a hearing to be devoted readers.
One of the communication media is written essay or paper. Many forms of writing that can be found in the written script, one of them is the theme of science. However, the composition of science is divided into the composition of science and the scientific essay (in Brotowidjojo Jones, 1993:3). This classification is based on the arguments presented, systematically, and the method of preparation of the paper.
Monograph presents a scholarly argument based on facts. Scientific arguments that can be trusted and accepted truth, so that the necessary criteria of serving the truth. The argument in the scientific monograph should be presented with the other party does not make or hearing readers hesitate to accept. The hearing reception of the readers to a written communication that is based on the scientific indicators of a monograph, both of the characteristics, structure, language and aspects of the characteristics of a monograph. Serve monograph should be logical. Post a scientific paper that provides the means to use the argument of logic to think properly. When serving monograph using the logic of the argument is correct, then science will be accepted by the intellect or logic of the scientific thinking. When the monograph presents the arguments objectively, the argument is not personal, it will also be understood by readers as a truth. The word "scientific" in the various opportunities are often seen as something that complex, limited, owned by certain parties, and of course difficult. Scientific meeting, for example, is limited to meeting the experts in certain fields. Scientific paper also often understood as the work produced by certain parties who have had a certain scholarly cadres also. The authors scientific papers are usually specialists or experts in a particular field. The teachers, because in some cases limit themselves, as difficult to enter this area, so that every time a seminar or training is not a scientific paper that the ability to write scientific papers as part of the world. Even teachers are scientists who are experts in the field and produce the work required in the field. Even in the scholarly world level contain any rate scientifics and can be achieved by anyone with the appropriate fields. In other words, a scientific paper must surely be part of a careful teachers as a scientist.
The paper is a scientific paper presented in a scientific forum in the media or scientific. Characteristics scientifics there is a paper on the content, serving, and the language used. Contents of scientific works are scholarly, that is, rational, objective, not partisan, and the talk is. Fill a scientific paper and should focus on a specific area of scholarly in depth. The depth of the works very adapted to the ability of the scientists. The language used should also be raw, adjusted to the spelling system that applies in Indonesia. Scientific language does not use the language association, but must use the language of science, the things that are in accordance with the technical field study. However, apart from all the nuance and complexity, nuance "grim", which was created in the head teacher, actually writing the paper is a scientific activity with the same process in general. Activities basically write or present activities to convey ideas or thoughts, information, the will, interest and various messages to other parties in writing. Activities of scientific paper writing is understood as the activities to convey knowledge and new findings in a science writing in the language. Scientific paper also usually use the scientific media, such as scientific journals or scientific forum. Writing is all brain activity using the right parts of the brain (emotional) and parts of the left brain (logic) (DeProter, 1999:179). Role of the right brain (emotional) in the activities of writing is to give the spirit, make a spontaneous, emotional color, giving the imagination, to create passion, to give nuance new elements, provide shade and exhilaration in the role while the left brain (logic) in writing is to make planning (outline), using the grammar, editing, writing on the back, doing research and punctuation. A paper that both of the communicative, the message was understood that the purpose of the readers as the author. Writing through the communicative languages of systematically arranged, easily digested, not long-winded, and not a double meaning (ambiguous). Writing a scientific paper, with other languages, is preparing the words mean in a series of useful information for readers.
Given all the scientists, including teachers, have the scholarly thoughts and ideas, then write a scientific paper must be for a teacher. Teachers must do this creative process and deliver each of the findings or the problems in the classroom or the learning process in a paper that scientific accountable. For teachers, should, writing scientific papers to be a need to remember this is how teachers can communicated ideas and learning problems that every day. Scientific paper should not work like that or promising, considering each academic teachers need to communicate. Scientific paper is not necessarily the result of the research. Scientific paper can also be generated from the mind-depth thinking with a study of literature.
(See next)

Rabu, 12 November 2008

Study of Readability Text Book Elementary School

by Dr. Suherli, M.Pd.

A. Background
Research on the legibility of text books are lessons in the framework of standardizing the quality of textbooks in the school refers to the regulations. Government Regulation No. 19 of 2005 on National Education Standards states that, among other subjects, including text books to the education facilities that need to set quality standards, as well as the quality standard of education, namely the standard content, the standard process, competency standards, standards of education and personnel , The standard of facilities and infrastructure, management standards, standards of financing, education and standard of assessment. Article 43 These regulations state that the ownership of textbooks must achieve the ratio of 1:1, or a text book lesson is for a student. Of textbooks used in schools must have the truth of the contents, serving the systematic use of language and legibility of good, and chart the functional. Feasibility is determined by the assessment of the National Education Standards Agency (BSNP) and determined based on the Regulation of the Minister. Regulation of the Minister of National Education of the Republic of Indonesia (the game) No. 11 of 2005 in a more detailed set of functions, selection, the use, ownership, procurement, and supervision of textbooks. According to the Regulation of the Minister is, of textbooks is obliged to reference books used in schools that learning materials in order to increase the faith and the rotation, good nature and personality, skills, mastery of science and technology, sensitivity and aesthetic ability, potential and physical health are prepared based on national education standards. Of textbooks as a reference work required by the teachers and students in the learning process. From the results of the study reveal that the text books used in our schools consist of four types. When reviewed the classification based on the book education, consisting of (1) of textbooks; (2) teaching book; (3) books and (4) reference books (Center Perbukuan the Ministry of Education, 2004:4). Of textbooks is a book that works for students to learn. This type of book is very dependent on the developed curriculum. The book also called teaching guide educators (No game. 11/2005). This book functions as a guideline for teachers to teach a lesson materials. Books work as a book that can enrich the knowledge, skills and personality students. Reference book is also called the reference book (No game. 11/2005). This book is a book that serves as a source of information in a deepen the study. The type of books is often called a source with the books or reference books. Some characteristics of textbooks is: (1) has a scholarly foundation and a clear date, (2) contains material that is sufficient, varied, easy to read, and in accordance with the needs of students, (3) is presented in a systematic, logical, and organized; ( 4) increase the interest the students to learn; (5) contains materials that help students to solve similar problems; (6) contains self-reflection and evaluation to measure competency that has been and will be learned. From the aspect of the content or materials, textbooks lessons must be accountable from the point of truth and knowledge that diajarkannya not violate the governance norms and regulations. These learning materials should be specific, clear, accurate and, in accordance with the curriculum, and are following the developments and the current period. Illustration accordance with the text and more instructive, and not only as decorative. Of textbooks should also serve the purpose of learning, set the gradation and selection of teaching materials, instead of the assignment to the students, observing the relationship antarbahan, and the relationship with the training text and questions. This should be able to improve students' motivation, leading to the mastery of competence, so that other materials that can remind one of the other (recalling prerequisite), utilizing feedback (feedback) and self-reflection (self-Reflection). Of textbooks should also be able to convey the material in the language of good and correct. Here can be seen whether the use of the language fair, interesting, and in accordance with the development of the students or not. Legibility aspects related to the level of ease of language (vocabulary, sentences, paragraphs, and discourse) for students with appropriate levels of education, namely matters related to the ease of reading or writing topography, width and space aspects of the other chart, kemenarikan material in accordance with the interests of readers, the density of ideas and information in the literature, beauty and style of writing, grammar and conformity with the raw materials. In 2004 the Ministry of Education through the Directorate General of Basic and Secondary Education Decree No. 455 and 505 have been set textbooks for lessons to elementary school and Madrasah Ibtidaiyah for Mathematics, Science, English, Social Knowledge and who meet eligibility content, serving, legibility, and chart-based assessment conducted by PNPBP Center Perbukuan the Ministry of Education in 2004. Such books in 2006 should have been used in elementary across the country. To determine the legibility of text on the subject should be reviewed in three cases, the legibility of text, background readers, and the interaction between the text with the readers. Readability related to the events that made someone read, so will bertemali with aspects of (1) readers; (2) reads, and (3) background (Rusyana, 1984: 213). The third component will be able to explain the legibility of textbooks. Assessment of the legibility of textbooks that have been made to the text book lessons in 2004, only centered on aspects of reading, good things associated with the discourse, paragraphs, sentences, and words from the principle that, in the Indonesian language and the language ketersesuaian with students . Meanwhile, information about the condition of interaction between readers and readers with reading activities in the assessment is not a consideration because the information must be obtained when the book is used as a readers learners. Therefore, information about the interaction of readers and readers with a complete reading required in the legibility of textbooks. Thus, an examination conducted in more depth on these aspects, namely "Readability Text Book Elementary School with the National", which reviewed based on the characteristics of the readers and their use in learning.
B. Issues Research
Based on the background, the legibility of this study define the problem as follows:
(1) How to read a profile of elementary school students interact with the text book lessons with national views of: (a) diversity that reads read outside school hours? (b) Frequency activities to outside school hours?
(2) How legibility of text books that elementary school lessons with the National reviewed based on the characteristics of the students as users of the book? This problem developed with the characteristics of students. Therefore this problem developed again become: (a) How legibility of text books to be reviewed based on lessons learned when keterpahaman students against the use of vocabulary, sentences, paragraphs, and the discourse contained in the book? (b) How legibility of text books to be reviewed based on lessons learned when kemenarikan serving in the text books that determine keterpahaman these books? (c) How legibility of text books to be reviewed based on lessons learned when the ease in understanding the material sistematika serving?
(3) How legibility of textbooks to primary schools when the national standard of use is reviewed based on events learned in the teacher?
C. Platform Main Theory
Readability is all the elements in the text (including the interaction antarteks) that affect the success of readers in understanding the material dibacanya on the optimal speed reading (Dale & Chall in Gilliland, 1972). Mc Laughin (1980) adds that legibility is related to the understanding of readers because it has During attraction which allows readers continue reading in the sinking. Gilliland (1972) and concluded that legibility associated with three things, namely, convenience, kemenarikan, and keterpahaman. Ease of reading related to the form of writing, namely, the typography (topography) as the width of the letters and spaces. This facility related to speed the introduction of the word, the level of error, the number of seconds per eye fixation, and clarity of writing (the form and size of the paper). Kemenarikan related to the interests of readers, the density of ideas on reading, writing style and beauty. Keterpahaman associated with the characteristics of words and sentences, such as long-short and the frequency of the use of words or sentences, up sentences, paragraphs and order. Next, Klare (1984:726) stated that the reading level of legibility, which have both affected the readers will increase interest in learning and memory, increase speed and efficiency of reading, and keep reading habits. Basically, the level of legibility it can be determined through two ways, namely through a formula and legibility through the response of readers (McNeill,, 1980; Singer & Donlan, 1980). Formula legibility is basically the instruments to predict the difficulties in understanding reading. Score legibility based on the formula is obtained from the number of words that are considered difficult, the number of words in the sentence, and the length of the sentence that reads samples taken randomly. Formula Flesch (1974), Graph Fry (1977), and the graph Raygor (1984) using the formula which similar legibility. From the third formula, the Fry Graph more popular and widely used because the formula is relatively simple and easy to use. Legibility level of discourse can also be obtained from the tests legibility of a number of readers in the form of ability to understand the reading test. The test is to test what is mentioned by Bernhardt (1991) as a 'heuristic six factors in understanding the content of reading'. Three factors associated with the text (text driven), namely the introduction of the word, the process dekoding phoneme-grafem, and the introduction of syntactical sentence. Three other factors related to the knowledge of readers (knowledge driven), namely intratextual perception, metacognition, and prior knowledge. The third factor is the last hidden and implicit, as has been discussed in the previous section. Meanwhile, Gilliland (1972) mentions five ways to measure the level of legibility, namely, the subjective assessment, debriefing, the formula for legibility, graphs and charts, and techniques cloze. Subjectively by certain people, such as teacher, librarian, editor, and groups of readers based on the observation of the contents, patterns, vocabulary, format and organization of a reading. Because by nature subjective, the validity of the results of assessments depend on the reliability of the assessors. If the assessors have adequate knowledge about aspects of legibility, the results usually have a good validity. Research on the legibility books have been held since the 1920s, among others, by Lively and Pressey find a formula based on legibility words and sentence structure and word meaning from the measured frequency and the predominance of demand (Klare, 1984). Dale (in Tarigan, 1985) examined the amount of vocabulary used by the children's beginner learners in the United States. Some 1,500 have ridden their words, especially related to the vocabulary words that are used daily. Entering the second year, students had to control some 3,000 vocabulary words. Addition of vocabulary each year about 1000 words, so that the number of vocabulary average for high school graduates around 14,000 words, and for students around 18,000 to 29,000 words (Harris & Sipay in Zuchdi, 1995). Legibility results of the study conducted by the Center Team Perbukuan year 2003-2004 concluded that the important characteristics of a text book lessons for primary schools that have high legibility can be seen from the aspect of the discourse, paragraph, sentence, word choice, and the question or exercise - training in book studies the text. Based on the study of aspects of discourse, the textbooks to primary schools that have high legibility for students with grade one to grade three, if presented with the narrative discourse, while classes for students with four to six presented with a description of the discourse. Based on the study of aspects of paragraphs from that research, it is known that the textbooks to primary schools that have high legibility is a lesson that the book is presented by using deductive paragraphs. Paragraphs inductive can be used to improve the understanding of students in classes four, five, six, and if used in the narrative discourse. Based on the study of aspects of sentence, the textbooks to primary schools that have high legibility for the two students and three classes are the words of the use of a simple sentence, while classes for students with four to six can use the broad understanding that can improve more well. If the use of discourse is the discourse of arguments, the simple words of the discourse can improve the legibility of a textbook. Based on the study of aspects of the use of words or choice of words, the textbooks for primary school students with grade one to three that have a high legibility if the book is used simple vocabulary, have sukukata simple, and kosakatanya related to the social context of the students. The use of vocabulary in the textbooks for students with grade four to six should avoid the use of specific terms, foreign or again tonight. Based on the study of the question reads, or in the exercise of textbooks, the textbooks for primary school class with a grade one to three questions should use the reading-shaped field is limited, the word hiatus, or complete a word in the context of sentences. Meanwhile, questions or training classes for students with four to six classes can use the question, command, or the exercise which demands the development of logical thinking ability and the ability of abstract thinking. In connection with the measurement of legibility or reading a text book lessons for primary school then it can be stated that the SMOG formula can be used to predict the suitability of a reading before the allotment was used as reading material to students in elementary schools. This formula is quite simple and can be used to measure the legibility of a reading of at least consists of 10 sentences. Measurement of experts or teachers on the legibility of reading material can only be done if the assessors (assessor) to control the materials to be measured and control aspects of the language used in the reading. The results of this measurement can be used to predict the level of legibility, before use as teaching materials to students. Legibility based on the measurement of students' abilities in reading and understanding the question reads a realistic measurement. Results of measurement in this way produces the legibility according to the results of the measurement formula SMOG and assessment experts. Measurements of this type of measurement results are considered the most suitable, because it made directly to the students as users. The results of this measurement can be used as an indicator of a reading that has a high legibility.
D. Research Methodology
Legibility of this study was conducted to legibility based on the interaction of readers (students) with a text book lessons with the National Primary School. To get that information, first reviewed the profile of the readers (students) elementary school in Indonesia. The focus of this research is to know the legibility of textbooks have stated that meet national standards, especially on keterpahaman and kemenarikan books reviewed the condition of students from elementary schools in Indonesia. In addition, the legibility of text books also reviewed the lessons based on feedback and experience of teachers in the use of textbooks in learning activities. In the case of legibility based on the condition of students, reviewed data on the characteristics of the students reviewed (1) type of textbooks that are used (English, Mathematics, Science, and Social Knowledge), (2) spatial (Indonesian part of West and East); (3 ) Levels of education (low grade / grade 1 and 2 compared with the high class, the class 3,4,5, and 6) and (3) based on the gender of the students (male and female). Meanwhile, data from the teachers are not classified based on the characteristics of teachers, because this is not the focus of this study. The study was conducted using the data source as: (1) All text books Primary School who studies national standard. (2) Primary School Students (grade 1 to grade 6) the use of textbooks that the national standard. (3) Primary School Teachers use of textbooks as a national standard materials pembelajarannya. In determining the source of the sample data, conducted by purposeful sampling technique with the selection criteria for the study sample keterpahaman students to the national standard book is as follows: (1) Book lessons used in schools that are in the range of this study, and the recipient schools block grants language textbooks, Science, Social Knowledge, and Mathematics. (2) Selection of primary school as a sample by considering the classification results of school accreditation by the Accreditation Board School (Accreditation of A, B, and C). (3) Selection of the schools also consider the geographical location of schools (schools in big cities, small cities, and the edge). (4) Selection of students based on a sample of students, men and women students from each grade level (I to VI). (5) The number of sample students to each class at least four people. (6) Total sample of teachers are all teachers up to class VI in a school sample. Meanwhile, as a comparison study conducted by the legibility of experts (desk research). This activity is carried out to confirm the data accrued from the results of the research. Therefore, the desk study to define the criteria of the sample book as follows: a. All the books language lessons, Science, Social Knowledge, Mathematics and the national standard, which used a sample of schools that school. b. Selection of sample books made randomly by considering each of these subjects. c. That the election be defined as three units of lessons (three chapters) are selected based on the representation of the early, middle and end of the lessons are presented in the book.
E. Research Results
In this section, presented the results of the research associated with the problems examined. Of the results of this research is adjusted to the things that are very dominant done by the students of primary school. The details of the results of this research are as follows.
1) Read Student Profile
Based on this research note that the profile read Primary School students who interact with the text book lessons with a national (English subjects, Mathematics, Science, and Social Knowledge) are as follows: (a) read the diversity of activities outside school hours by students is still lacking. Reads that read every day by 1-2 grade students is a comic book titles and television, especially by male or female students grade 3-6. However, students in grade 3-6 are generally each day reading the text book lessons. Reading fiction (stories) almost never read by students and 1-2 students male class 3-6, likewise known that the special class 3-6, in general, never read information from the Internet. Reads that read once a week on the general form of a magazine or newspaper. In addition, the type that reads read only once a week by students in classes 1-2 and daughter-class students is 3-6 comics, books to read once a week by students in the class 1-2, and 3-6 grade students daughter read story books generally done only once in a week. (b) Activities to read or reread the text book lessons outside school hours, students do still low. Activities read and re-read the text book lessons outside school hours, has a smaller frequency compared with the frequency they watch television. This means that the activities to watch television, which made students more dominant than the activities undertaken to read or reread the text book lessons outside school hours. It is known that very interesting to watch television in the 1-2 grade students and female students 3-6 grade male student more than the male and female grade 1-2 classes 3-6. In the case of reading fiction (short stories / novels, poetry, or drama) is still little is done. Activities of reading fiction is generally done only sporadically by the amount of time a little more than they watch television activities. Similarly, to read information from newspapers, magazines, or reading on the internet (special grade 4-6) is still very little done by the students.
2) Readability Characteristics
Based on Students Legibility of the study based on the interaction between reading (of textbooks) with students based on a review keterpahaman vocabulary, sentences, paragraphs, type text / reading; kemenarikan of textbooks and facilities in serving sistematika understand the results of research as described below. (a) Keterpahaman Vocabulary Understanding of primary school students to use the vocabulary of textbooks depend on the introduction of their vocabulary is. This means, understanding them will be good if the vocabulary used in English, Science, Social Knowledge and sequentially often heard (21.40%), vocabulary is known (20.42%), and is often used (16.22 %). This indicates that the conditions of primary school students generally understand the vocabulary because they often hear, know, and often use the vocabulary. However, special for Mathematics students had the level of understanding of the vocabulary used because the vocabulary is already known (23.0%) by them in their daily life. (b) Keterpahaman Sentence Understanding of primary school students on the use of the word in the text book lessons depends on the intimacy with these students. This means, if the words that are often known by the students will be more high legibility of text books these lessons. However, with this, specifically for mathematics have a text legibility high when these are presented in an effective, simple, clear and reveal the purpose or meaning of the sentence was intended. This is also the result of the second level of legibility of textbooks. It should be noted that the legibility of textbooks is determined also by the simplicity of use. The simple sentence was written in the text book lessons the higher legibility of the text books. If the textbook is used sentences that are difficult or students not yet known, the keterbacaannya to be low. However, keterbacaannya will be high if the sentence is followed by the words or descriptions that function as a descriptive sentence and is often heard by the students, especially in the subjects Social Knowledge. (c) Paragraphs Keterpahaman Understanding of primary school students on the use of the paragraphs in the text book lessons depending on the location of the main ideas in these paragraphs. When a paragraph in place the main idea in the beginning of a paragraph so students can better understand these paragraphs. This means that the paragraphs that were prepared by placing the main idea or thought at the beginning of the main paragraphs can be understood more students the meaning of these paragraphs and have a high legibility. The level of legibility is also determined by the availability of a picture or illustration that the convoy paragraphs. Thus, besides placing the main thoughts or ideas at the beginning of paragraphs, the presence of a picture or illustration that the convoy paragraphs can enhance students keterpahaman of paragraphs used.
(d) Comprehensibly Text
Reading In general, text or a discourse that is used in the national standard can be understood (64.55% or 373 respondents). When reviewed, based on forms of discourse that used the characteristics associated with reading which is considered easy to understand why the students found that a text / reads easily understood if the reading is presented using a form of discourse and narrative exposition or argumentation. This is very interesting if the review is based on the types of subjects, it is known that the exact sciences groups of subjects (Mathematics and Science) which reads easily understood if presented with the fair use of discourse and arguments, while for groups of social subjects (English and Social Knowledge) if presented with the use of discourse and narrative exposition. When reviewed based on the level of education, it is known that the level of ease in understanding the text / reading, the students based on low-grade (1-2) is considered a reading impalpable if reading is presented with the use of discourse and narrative exposition, while the high-class, if presented with the discourse exposition and arguments. Gender-based classification of the respondents, it is known that female students, according to a text easily understood if presented with the use of discourse and narrative exposition, while the male students, if presented with the use of discourse exposition, narration, and argumentation. (e) Interestingly of Serve Text Book Lessons Based on the study reveal that the national standard text books in general is very interesting that 97% disclosed by the student respondents. Those confirmed to the students when the reason for the statement stated that the text book lessons with the national interest because they use a picture or illustration that clarify the content of the material presented and to use the letters / reads a clear and legible, and easily understood language. Kemenarikan of textbooks to be reviewed if a national standard based on the characteristics of the respondents, the reasons are almost the same, except when respondents are classified by grade level. Respondents high (grades 3-6) states that kemenarikan of textbooks is a national standard because it is presented by using language that is easily understood and use the volume and color images, according to the respondents, while low-grade (1-2) for using the image that clarify the content and use the letters and clearly legible.
(f) Ease of Understanding Sistematic Serve
Based on sistematika serving of textbooks national standard is known that in general the text book lessons that easy because a serving of such material, along with images, combined with the knowledge of students, and customized experience with the students. However, when reviewed on the basis of lessons obtained information that serving of textbooks English easily understood because the material is adapted to the experience of students. Serving of textbooks Knowledge and Social Sciences considered easy mark by serving as the image. Meanwhile, the mathematics text books are considered easy to be understood as serving the material in the book is associated with the knowledge of students. 3. Based on the Readability Rating Teachers Based on the experience of teachers in the use of textbooks English, Mathematics, Science, Social Knowledge and know that the average legibility of text book learning English have a level of 3.52 legibility. Mathematics text books have a level of 3.71 legibility. Science text book lessons have legibility level of 3.68. Knowledge of textbooks have Social legibility level of 3.22. Legibility of text book learning English, Mathematics, Science, Social and Knowledge-based assessment of teachers who teach in Indonesia's western region is known that the average legibility of text books with subjects of 3.67, while teachers in the Indonesian region of East 3 , 50. The teachers give an assessment of the legibility of textbooks to primary schools with an average score of 3.58 from a score of 5.0 is ideal. This shows that in general the teachers stated that the text books have lessons with the high quality of legibility. This can be a score of the average value of legibility, which provided teachers with experience in related learning activities, generally score above the average value of legibility. Only this assessment is considered less comprehensive because it is done based on the books with the national Primary School used in the schools. The results of the assessment of teachers is next conducted by researchers justification through desk study conducted by random sampling of 37 text books Primary School who studies national standard. Based on the study desk study reveal that the average legibility of text books with lessons for the Primary School has a value 3.45. Thus, Average score is not much different with the assessment that teachers do or do not have a bias too far. Based on this study is known that the general standard of textbooks have not been equipped with books Educators guidelines, so that the score-related aspects of the very poor. Similarly, the criteria of the book, with the work, a book on the books generally are not equipped with a standard book work. F. Knots From research legibility of textbooks for elementary school subjects in English, Mathematics, Science, Knowledge and Social knot obtained as follows: (3) In conducting the study on the profile read Primary School students who interact with the standard of textbooks, note that: (a) read the activities of the students every day outside school hours for the class is reading comics 1-2 and 3-6 for the class is the events of television and reading the text lessons. 1-2 grade students in general to read books again only once in a week. Students almost never read information from the Internet and fiction (fiction books), except the 3-6 class of women students who read fiction once a week. Activities to read information from magazines or newspapers is generally done only once in a week. (b) to read the activities of students outside school hours, have a lower portion than watching television, especially that done by women students 1-2 grade students and male class 3-6. Based on kekerapannya known that the type of fiction books to read, information from newspapers, magazines and the Internet tend to be done once-only once, with a portion of the lower than watch television. (4) Readability of textbooks with keterpahaman depend on vocabulary, sentence, paragraph and the type of reading that is used; kemenarikan serving of the book; and ease of use sistematika serving materials. (a) Keterpahaman in the vocabulary of textbooks is determined by the frequency vocabulary is already known and heard by students. Keterpahaman sentence in the text book lessons determined by the level of intimacy and simplicity of these students, if the words in the text books are often known by students or presented with a simple layout, the legibility of textbooks is increasingly high. Keterpahaman paragraphs in the text book lessons determined by the location of the main thoughts or ideas that are presented on the main paragraphs and early availability of a picture or illustration that the convoy paragraphs. Keterpahaman text or reading books with the generally higher, because the use of discourse narration, exposition, and arguments. Keterpahaman reading text books in the exact sciences subjects (Mathematics and Science) high when using the type of discourse exposition and arguments, while social subjects (English and Social Knowledge) use the type of discourse and narrative exposition. (b) Kemenarikan serving of text books with subjects is very high, because the picture or illustration that clarify the content of the material presented and to use letters or reading a clear and legible, and easily understood language. Of textbooks that use language that is easily understood, using the volume or color images, using pictures and illustrations that could clarify the contents, and using letters that read, and have a clear attraction determine the legibility of the book. (c) Ease in understanding sistematika serving also determine the legibility of text books with lessons. Ease in understanding is serving as a material is accompanied by a picture, combined with the knowledge of students, and adjusted to the experience of students as users of the book. (5) Readability of textbooks to primary schools with teachers based on an assessment that is associated with learning, are known to have high legibility (3.58 from 5.0). Generally the text book lessons have not been equipped with a guide book and educators working as a support for learning activities. G. Recommendations Based on the knot at the top, is presented in the following recommendations: (1) To improve the legibility of textbooks, other than the need to be improving the quality of textbooks legibility standard, also required improvement of the quality of the students read the profile. Therefore, teachers should always motivate students to read every day, whether related to the subject matter and to seek information from newspapers, newspapers, and the Internet. In order to increase the intensity read story books (fiction), teachers should deliver the benefits that can be achieved if students read the activities of the text. (2) In order to reduce the portion of a television activities with students should read each day the students given the quiz, training, or activities that may encourage them to increase the portion of the profile read, so read the primary school students, the better. (3) To improve the legibility of text books to primary schools with lessons should the author or publisher if the book will make revisions to the text books can replace the use of vocabulary that is rarely heard and not known by the students; replace the use of the sentence that has not been intimate with the students and a complex sentence; rebuild paragraphs that can be converted into paragraphs and deductive complete with pictures and illustrations; form of discourse adjust to the type of discourse that has a high legibility for students. (4) In the effort to improve the legibility of text book can lessons be done with the author or publisher to use pictures or illustrations that clarify the content of the material presented, using letters or reading a clear and legible, and easily understood language to students. In addition, the intention sistematika serving, serving as a material with images, combined with the knowledge of students, and adjusted to the experience of students in order to improve the legibility the book. From this research can also be submitted recommendations on the results of research as follows: (1) In order to increase the use of textbooks with the teacher then recommended to complement the textbook publisher with the guidelines provide clarity and educators about the completeness of the book work that need to be prepared in learning. (2) Research the use of two types of instruments to students, for students grade 1-2 and 3-6 classes, but there are obstacles when the instrument measuring the 1-2 grade students who still can not read. Similarly, when doing research, in particular school students assisted teachers in providing answers, the teacher should be assigned only a low grade lead students in determining answers that are intended students. Therefore research to the next instrument recommended that students need for more simplified again, adjusted to the conditions and the ability of low-class students. Instruments on the profile read the students need to be simplified with the level of diversity and frequency of a more rational. (3) Data on teacher assessments of the text books to primary schools with lessons still not comprehensive. This occurs because the text of the book is not comprehensive lesson in all areas as research subjects. Rating teachers to books tend to be subjective text with limited data sources so that further research is needed to increase the diversity of books with text and the number of teachers using the book. It is therefore recommended that further research can improve the diversity of textbooks with that assessed by teachers. (4) In this research is still not much to get information related to the interaction with readers reading. Therefore, recommended further research to study the rate of increase in the interaction, which includes the study of the level of the introduction (and recognising the word), understanding (understanding) on the aspects of language books (discourse, paragraphs, sentences, words), convenience (easily) to understand the message , interesting aspects of chart books (picture, color, food / lay out) and responses (Responding) students in reading the text as a source of learning lessons and learning.

Selasa, 11 November 2008

Keterbacaan Buku Teks Pelajaran

Oleh: Dr. H. Suherli, M.Pd.

A. Latar Belakang
Penelitian tentang keterbacaan buku teks pelajaran ini berada dalam kerangka standardisasi mutu buku teks pelajaran di sekolah mengacu pada peraturan yang berlaku. Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 19 Tahun 2005 tentang Standar Nasional Pendidikan antara lain menyebutkan bahwa buku teks pelajaran termasuk ke dalam sarana pendidikan yang perlu diatur standar mutunya, sebagaimana juga standar mutu pendidikan lainnya, yaitu standar isi, standar proses, standar kompetensi lulusan, standar pendidikan dan kependidikan, standar sarana dan prasarana, standar pengelolaan, standar pembiayaan, dan standar penilaian pendidikan. Pasal 43 peraturan ini menyebutkan bahwa kepemilikan buku teks pelajaran harus mencapai rasio 1:1, atau satu buku teks pelajaran diperuntukkan bagi seorang siswa. Buku teks pelajaran yang digunakan di sekolah-sekolah harus memiliki kebenaran isi, penyajian yang sistematis, penggunaan bahasa dan keterbacaan yang baik, dan grafika yang fungsional. Kelayakan ini ditentukan oleh penilaian yang dilakukan Badan Standar Nasional Pendidikan (BSNP) dan ditetapkan berdasarkan Peraturan Menteri.
Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional Republik Indonesia (Permendiknas) Nomor 11 Tahun 2005 secara lebih rinci mengatur tentang fungsi, pemilihan, masa pakai, kepemilikan, pengadaan, dan pengawasan buku teks pelajaran. Menurut Peraturan Menteri ini, buku teks pelajaran adalah buku acuan wajib untuk digunakan di sekolah yang memuat materi pembelajaran dalam rangka peningkatan keimanan dan ketakwaan, budi pekerti dan kepribadian, kemampuan penguasaan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi, kepekaan dan kemampuan estetis, potensi fisik dan kesehatan yang disusun berdasarkan standar nasional pendidikan. Buku teks pelajaran berfungsi sebagai acuan wajib oleh guru dan peserta didik dalam proses pembelajaran.
Dari hasil kajian diketahui bahwa buku-buku teks yang digunakan di sekolah-sekolah kita terdiri atas empat jenis. Apabila ditinjau berdasarkan klasifikasi buku pendidikan, maka terdiri atas (1) buku teks pelajaran; (2) buku pengajaran; (3) buku pengayaan; dan (4) buku rujukan (Pusat Perbukuan Depdiknas, 2004:4). Buku teks pelajaran merupakan buku yang berfungsi bagi siswa untuk belajar. Jenis buku ini sangat bergantung pada kurikulum yang dikembangkan. Buku pengajaran dinamakan pula buku panduan pendidik (Permendiknas No. 11/2005). Buku ini berfungsi sebagai pedoman bagi guru dalam mengajarkan suatu materi pelajaran. Buku pengayaan berfungsi sebagai buku yang dapat memperkaya pengetahuan, keterampilan, dan kepribadian siswa. Buku rujukan disebut juga buku referensi (Permendiknas No. 11/2005). Buku ini merupakan buku yang berfungsi sebagai sumber informasi dalam memperdalam suatu kajian. Jenis buku ini sering disebut pula dengan buku sumber atau buku acuan.
Beberapa karakteristik buku teks pelajaran adalah: (1) memiliki landasan keilmuan yang jelas dan mutakhir; (2) berisi materi yang memadai, bervariasi, mudah dibaca, dan sesuai dengan kebutuhan siswa; (3) disajikan secara sistematis, logis, dan teratur; (4) meningkatkan minat siswa untuk belajar; (5) berisi materi yang membantu siswa untuk memecahkan masalah keseharian; (6) memuat materi refleksi dan evaluasi diri untuk mengukur kompetensi yang telah dan akan dipelajari.
Dari aspek isi atau materi, buku teks pelajaran harus dapat dipertanggungjawabkan dari sudut kebenaran ilmu yang diajarkannya dan tidak melanggar tata norma yang berlaku. Bahan pembelajaran ini harus spesifik, jelas, dan akurat, sesuai dengan kurikulum yang berlaku, serta bersifat mutakhir dan mengikuti perkembangan zaman. Ilustrasi sesuai dengan teks dan lebih bersifat edukatif serta tidak hanya sebagai dekoratif.
Buku teks pelajaran juga harus menyajikan tujuan pembelajaran, mengatur gradasi dan seleksi bahan ajar, mengurutkan penugasan kepada siswa, memerhatikan hubungan antarbahan, dan hubungan teks dengan latihan dan soal. Penyajian ini hendaknya dapat meningkatkan motivasi siswa, mengarah pada penguasaan kompetensi, saling berkaitan sehingga bahan yang satu dapat mengingatkan bahan yang lainnya (recalling prerequisite), memanfaatkan umpan balik (feedback) dan refleksi diri (self-reflection).
Buku teks pelajaran hendaknya juga mampu menyampaikan bahan ajar itu dalam bahasa yang baik dan benar. Di sini dapat dilihat apakah penggunaan bahasanya wajar, menarik, dan sesuai dengan perkembangan siswa atau tidak. Aspek keterbacaan berkaitan dengan tingkat kemudahan bahasa (kosakata, kalimat, paragraf, dan wacana) bagi siswa sesuai dengan jenjang pendidikannya, yakni hal-hal yang berhubungan dengan kemudahan membaca bentuk tulisan atau topografi, lebar spasi dan aspek-aspek grafika lainnya, kemenarikan bahan ajar sesuai dengan minat pembaca, kepadatan gagasan dan informasi yang ada dalam bacaan, dan keindahan gaya tulisan, serta kesesuaian dengan tatabahasa baku.
Pada tahun 2004 Depdiknas melalui SK Dirjen Dikdasmen Nomor 455 dan 505 telah menetapkan buku-buku teks pelajaran untuk Sekolah Dasar dan Madrasah Ibtidaiyah untuk mata pelajaran Matematika, IPA, Bahasa Indonesia, dan Pengetahuan Sosial yang memenuhi kelayakan isi, penyajian, keterbacaan, dan grafika berdasarkan penilaian yang dilakukan oleh PNPBP Pusat Perbukuan Depdiknas pada tahun 2004. Buku-buku tersebut pada tahun 2006 sepatutnya telah digunakan di SD/MI di seluruh Indonesia.
Untuk menentukan keterbacaan suatu teks pelajaran seharusnya dikaji pada tiga hal, yaitu keterbacaan teks, latar belakang pembaca, dan interaksi antara teks dengan pembaca. Keterbacaan berhubungan dengan peristiwa membaca yang dilakukan seseorang, sehingga akan bertemali dengan aspek (1) pembaca; (2) bacaan; dan (3) latar (Rusyana, 1984: 213). Ketiga komponen tersebut akan dapat menerangkan keterbacaan buku teks pelajaran.
Penilaian terhadap keterbacaan buku teks pelajaran yang telah dilakukan terhadap buku-buku teks pelajaran pada 2004 hanya berpusat terhadap aspek bacaan, baik hal-hal yang berhubungan dengan wacana, paragraf, kalimat, dan kata yang dipandang dari kaidah bahasa Indonesia dan ketersesuaian bahasa dengan peserta didik. Sementara itu, informasi tentang kondisi pembaca dan interaksi antara pembaca dengan bacaan dalam kegiatan penilaian tidak menjadi pertimbangan karena informasi tersebut harus diperoleh ketika buku tersebut digunakan peserta didik sebagai pembacanya.
Oleh karena itu, informasi tentang pembaca dan interaksi pembaca dengan bacaan diperlukan dalam melengkapi keterbacaan buku teks pelajaran. Dengan demikian, dilakukan pengkajian secara lebih mendalam tentang aspek tersebut, yaitu “Keterbacaan Buku Teks Pelajaran Sekolah Dasar Berstandar Nasional” yang ditinjau berdasarkan karakteristik pembaca dan penggunaannya dalam pembelajaran.

B. Masalah Penelitian
Berdasarkan latar belakang tersebut, maka kajian keterbacaan ini menetapkan masalah sebagai berikut:
(1) Bagaimanakah profil membaca siswa Sekolah Dasar yang berinteraksi dengan buku teks pelajaran berstandar nasional, dilihat dari:
(a) Keragaman bacaan yang dibaca di luar jam pelajaran sekolah?
(b) Kekerapan melakukan kegiatan-kegiatan membaca di luar jam pelajaran sekolah?
(2) Bagaimanakah keterbacaan buku teks pelajaran Sekolah Dasar yang Berstandar Nasional apabila ditinjau berdasarkan karakteristik siswa sebagai pengguna buku?
Masalah ini dikembangkan lagi dengan mencermati karakteristik siswa. Oleh karena itu masalah ini dikembangkan lagi menjadi:
(a) Bagaimanakah keterbacaan buku teks pelajaran apabila ditinjau berdasarkan keterpahaman siswa terhadap penggunaan kosakata, kalimat, paragraf, dan wacana yang terdapat dalam buku tersebut?
(b) Bagaimanakah keterbacaan buku teks pelajaran apabila ditinjau berdasarkan kemenarikan penyajian dalam buku teks yang turut menentukan keterpahaman buku tersebut?
(c) Bagaimanakah keterbacaan buku teks pelajaran apabila ditinjau berdasarkan kemudahan dalam memahami sistematika penyajian materi?
(3) Bagaimanakah keterbacaan buku teks pelajaran sekolah dasar berstandar nasional apabila ditinjau berdasarkan penggunaannya dalam kegiatan pembelajaran yang dilakukan guru?

C. Landasan Teori Utama
Keterbacaan dalam bahasa Inggris disebut readability. Keterbacaan adalah seluruh unsur yang ada dalam teks (termasuk di dalamnya interaksi antarteks) yang berpengaruh terhadap keberhasilan pembaca dalam memahami materi yang dibacanya pada kecepatan membaca yang optimal (Dale & Chall dalam Gilliland, 1972). Mc Laughin (1980) menambahkan bahwa keterbacaan itu berkaitan dengan pemahaman pembaca karena bacaannya itu memiliki daya tarik tersendiri yang memungkinkan pembacanya terus tenggelam dalam bacaan.
Gilliland (1972) kemudian menyimpulkan keterbacaan itu berkaitan dengan tiga hal, yakni kemudahan, kemenarikan, dan keterpahaman. Kemudahan membaca berhubungan dengan bentuk tulisan, yakni tata huruf (topografi) seperti besar huruf dan lebar spasi. Kemudahan ini berkaitan dengan kecepatan pengenalan kata, tingkat kesalahan, jumlah fiksasi mata per detik, dan kejelasan tulisan (bentuk dan ukuran tulisan). Kemenarikan berhubungan dengan minat pembaca, kepadatan ide pada bacaan, dan keindahan gaya tulisan. Keterpahaman berhubungan dengan karakteristik kata dan kalimat, seperti panjang-pendeknya dan frekuensi penggunaan kata atau kalimat, bangun kalimat, dan susunan paragraf.
Selanjutnya, Klare (1984:726) menyatakan bahwa bacaan yang memiliki tingkat keterbacaan yang baik akan memengaruhi pembacanya dalam meningkatkan minat belajar dan daya ingat, menambah kecepatan dan efisiensi membaca, dan memelihara kebiasaan membacanya.
Pada dasarnya, tingkat keterbacaan itu dapat ditentukan melalui dua cara, yaitu melalui formula keterbacaan dan melalui respons pembaca (McNeill,, 1980; Singer & Donlan, 1980). Formula keterbacaan pada dasarnya adalah instrumen untuk memprediksi kesulitan dalam memahami bacaan. Skor keterbacaan berdasarkan formula ini didapat dari jumlah kata yang dianggap sulit, jumlah kata dalam kalimat, dan panjang kalimat pada sampel bacaan yang diambil secara acak. Formula Flesch (1974), Grafik Fry (1977), dan Grafik Raygor (1984) menggunakan rumus keterbacaan yang hampir sama. Dari ketiga formula itu, Grafik Fry lebih populer dan banyak digunakan karena formulanya relatif sederhana dan mudah digunakan.
Tingkat keterbacaan wacana juga dapat diperoleh dari tes keterbacaan terhadap sejumlah pembaca dalam bentuk tes kemampuan memahami bacaan. Tes itu menguji apa yang disebutkan oleh Bernhardt (1991) sebagai ’enam faktor heuristic dalam pemahaman isi bacaan’. Tiga faktor berkaitan dengan teks (text driven), yaitu pengenalan kata, proses dekoding fonem-grafem, dan pengenalan sintaksis kalimat. Tiga faktor lain berhubungan dengan pengetahuan pembaca (knowledge driven), yaitu intratextual perception, metacognition, dan prior knowledge. Ketiga faktor terakhir itu sifatnya tersembunyi dan tersirat, sebagaimana telah dibahas pada bagian terdahulu.
Sementara itu, Gilliland (1972) menyebutkan lima cara mengukur tingkat keterbacaan, yakni penilaian subjektif, tanya jawab, formula keterbacaan, grafik & Carta, dan teknik cloze. Penilaian subjektif dilakukan oleh sejumlah orang tertentu –seperti guru, pustakawan, editor, dan kelompok pembaca berdasarkan pengamatan atas isi, pola, kosakata, format dan pengorganisasian suatu bacaan. Oleh karena sifatnya subjektif, keabsahan hasil penilaiannya bergantung pada keandalan para penilai. Jika penilai memiliki pengetahuan yang memadai tentang aspek-aspek keterbacaan, maka hasil penilaian biasanya memiliki validitas yang baik.
Penelitian tentang keterbacaan buku sudah berlangsung sejak tahun 1920-an, antara lain dilakukan oleh Lively dan Pressey yang menemukan formula keterbacaan berdasarkan struktur kata dan kalimat serta makna kata yang diukur dari frekuensi dan kelaziman pemakaiannya (Klare, 1984). Dale (dalam Tarigan, 1985) meneliti jumlah kosakata yang digunakan oleh anak-anak pembelajar pemula di Amerika Serikat. Sebanyak 1500 kata telah dikuasai mereka, terutama kosakata yang berhubungan dengan kata-kata yang digunakan sehari-hari. Memasuki tahun kedua, para siswa itu telah menguasai kosakata sejumlah 3000 kata. Penambahan kosakata setiap tahun sekitar 1000 kata, sehingga jumlah kosakata rata-rata bagi lulusan SMA sekitar 14000 kata, dan bagi mahasiswa sekitar 18000 sampai 29000 kata (Harris & Sipay dalam Zuchdi, 1995).
Hasil studi keterbacaan yang dilaksanakan oleh Tim Pusat Perbukuan tahun 2003-2004 menyimpulkan bahwa ciri-ciri penting dari suatu buku teks pelajaran untuk sekolah dasar yang memiliki keterbacaan tinggi dapat dilihat dari penggunaan aspek wacana, paragraf, kalimat, pilihan kata, dan pertanyaan atau latihan-latihan dalam buku teks pelajaran tersebut. Berdasarkan kajian terhadap aspek wacana, maka buku pelajaran sekolah dasar yang memiliki keterbacaan tinggi untuk siswa kelas satu sampai dengan kelas tiga jika disajikan dengan menggunakan wacana narasi, sedangkan untuk siswa kelas empat sampai dengan enam disajikan dengan menggunakan wacana deskripsi.
Berdasarkan kajian terhadap aspek paragraf dari penelitian itu, diketahui bahwa buku pelajaran sekolah dasar yang memiliki keterbacaan tinggi adalah buku pelajaran yang disajikan dengan menggunakan paragraf-paragraf deduktif. Paragraf induktif dapat digunakan dalam meningkatkan pemahaman siswa kelas empat, lima, dan enam jika digunakan dalam wacana narasi.
Berdasarkan kajian terhadap aspek kalimat, maka buku pelajaran sekolah dasar yang memiliki keterbacaan tinggi bagi siswa kelas dua dan tiga adalah jika kalimat-kalimat yang digunakannya berupa kalimat sederhana, sedangkan untuk siswa kelas empat sampai dengan enam dapat menggunakan kalimat luas yang dapat meningkatkan pemahamannya secara lebih baik. Jika wacana yang digunakannya adalah wacana argumentasi, maka kalimat-kalimat sederhana dalam wacana tersebut dapat meningkatkan keterbacaan suatu buku pelajaran.
Berdasarkan kajian terhadap aspek penggunaan kata atau pilihan kata maka buku pelajaran sekolah dasar untuk siswa kelas satu sampai dengan tiga yang memiliki keterbacaan tinggi jika pada buku tersebut digunakan kosakata sederhana, memiliki sukukata sederhana, dan kosakatanya berhubungan dengan konteks social siswa. Penggunaan kosakata dalam buku pelajaran untuk siswa kelas empat sampai dengan enam sebaiknya menghindari penggunaan istilah-istilah khusus, asing atau bermakna konotatif.
Berdasarkan kajian terhadap pertanyaan bacaan atau latihan dalam buku teks pelajaran, diketahui bahwa buku pelajaran untuk sekolah dasar kelas satu sampai dengan kelas tiga sebaiknya menggunakan pertanyaan bacaan berbentuk isian terbatas, rumpang kata, atau melengkapi sebuah kata dalam konteks kalimat. Sementara itu, pertanyaan atau latihan untuk siswa kelas empat sampai dengan kelas enam dapat menggunakan pertanyaan, perintah, atau latihan yang menuntut pengembangan kemampuan berpikir logis dan kemampuan berpikir abstrak.
Dalam kaitan dengan pengukuran keterbacaan suatu bacaan atau buku teks pelajaran untuk sekolah dasar maka dapat dinyatakan bahwa formula SMOG dapat digunakan untuk memprediksi kesesuaian peruntukan suatu bacaan sebelum bacaan tersebut digunakan sebagai bahan ajar kepada para siswa sekolah dasar. Formula ini cukup sederhana dan dapat digunakan untuk mengukur keterbacaan suatu bacaan yang paling sedikit terdiri atas 10 kalimat.
Pengukuran ahli atau guru terhadap keterbacaan suatu bahan bacaan hanya dapat dilakukan jika penilai (assessor) menguasai materi pelajaran yang akan diukur dan menguasai pula aspek-aspek kebahasaan yang digunakan dalam bacaan tersebut. Hasil pengukuran ini dapat digunakan untuk memprediksi tingkat keterbacaan, sebelum digunakan sebagai bahan ajar kepada peserta didik.
Pengukuran keterbacaan berdasarkan kemampuan siswa dalam memahami bacaan dan pertanyaan bacaan merupakan pengukuran yang realistis. Hasil pengukuran dengan cara ini menghasilkan keterbacaan yang sesuai dengan hasil pengukuran dari formula SMOG dan penilaian ahli. Pengukuran jenis ini dianggap hasil pengukuran yang paling sesuai, karena dilakukan secara langsung kepada siswa sebagai pemakainya. Hasil pengukuran ini dapat digunakan sebagai indikator dari suatu bacaan yang memiliki keterbacaan tinggi.

D. Metodologi Penelitian
Kajian keterbacaan ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui keterbacaan berdasarkan interaksi pembaca (siswa) dengan buku teks pelajaran Sekolah Dasar berstandar Nasional. Untuk mendapatkan informasi itu, terlebih dahulu dikaji profil pembaca (siswa) Sekolah Dasar di Indonesia. Fokus kajian ini adalah mengetahui keterbacaan buku teks pelajaran yang telah dinyatakan memenuhi standar nasional, terutama berdasarkan keterpahaman dan kemenarikan buku ditinjau dari kondisi siswa Sekolah Dasar di Indonesia. Selain itu, keterbacaan buku teks pelajaran tersebut ditinjau pula berdasarkan tanggapan dan pengalaman guru dalam menggunakan buku teks pelajaran dalam kegiatan pembelajaran.
Dalam hal keterbacaan berdasarkan kondisi siswa, data dikaji berdasarkan karakteristik siswa ditinjau dari (1) jenis buku teks pelajaran yang digunakan (Bahasa Indonesia, Matematika, Sains, dan Pengetahuan Sosial); (2) kewilayahan (Indonesia bagian Barat dan Timur); (3) tingkatan pendidikan (kelas rendah/kelas 1 dan 2 dibandingkan dengan kelas tinggi, kelas 3,4,5, dan 6); serta (3) berdasarkan jenis kelamin siswa (laki-laki dan perempuan). Sementara itu, data dari guru tidak diklasifikasikan berdasarkan karakteristik guru, karena hal itu bukan sebagai fokus kajian ini.
Kajian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan sumber data berupa:
(1) Semua buku teks pelajaran Sekolah Dasar yang berstandar nasional.
(2) Siswa Sekolah Dasar (kelas 1 sampai dengan kelas 6) yang menggunakan buku teks pelajaran yang berstandar nasional.
(3) Guru Sekolah Dasar yang menggunakan buku teks pelajaran yang berstandar nasional sebagai bahan pembelajarannya.
Dalam menentukan sampel dari sumber data tersebut, dilakukan dengan teknik purposive sampling dengan kriteria pemilihan sampel untuk studi keterpahaman siswa terhadap buku berstandar nasional adalah sebagai berikut:
(1) Buku pelajaran yang digunakan di sekolah yang berada dalam jangkauan studi ini dan sekolah penerima block grant buku pelajaran bahasa Indonesia, Sains, Pengetahuan Sosial, dan Matematika.
(2) Pemilihan sekolah dasar sebagai sampel dengan mempertimbangkan klasifikasi hasil akreditasi sekolah oleh Badan Akreditasi Sekolah (Akreditasi A, B, dan C).
(3) Pemilihan sekolah juga mempertimbangkan letak geografis sekolah (sekolah kota besar, kota kecil, dan pinggiran).
(4) Pemilihan sampel siswa berdasarkan keterwakilan siswa laki-laki dan siswa perempuan dari tiap tingkat kelas (I sampai dengan VI).
(5) Jumlah sampel siswa untuk setiap kelas minimal empat orang.
(6) Jumlah sampel guru adalah seluruh guru kelas I sampai VI pada sekolah yang menjadi sampel.
Sementara itu, sebagai pembanding dilakukan kajian keterbacaan oleh ahli (desk research). Kegiatan ini dilakukan untuk mengkonfirmasi data-data yang terkumpul dari hasil penelitian. Oleh karena itu, untuk desk studi menetapkan kriteria sampel buku sebagai berikut:
a. Semua buku pelajaran bahasa Indonesia, Sains, Pengetahuan Sosial, dan Matematika yang berstandar nasional yang digunakan sekolah yang menjadi sampel sekolah.
b. Pemilihan sampel buku dilakukan secara acak dengan mempertimbangkan keterwakilan setiap mata pelajaran tersebut.
c. Pemilihan bagian yang ditelaah ditetapkan sebanyak tiga unit pelajaran (tiga bab) yang dipilih berdasarkan keterwakilan bagian awal, tengah, dan akhir dari keseluruhan pelajaran yang disajikan pada buku tersebut.

E. Hasil Penelitian
Pada bagian ini disajikan hasil penelitian yang dihubungkan dengan masalah yang diteliti. Penyajian hasil penelitian ini disesuaikan dengan hal-hal yang sangat dominan dilakukan oleh para siswa sekolah dasar. Adapun rincian hasil penelitian ini adalah sebagai berikut.

1) Profil Membaca Siswa
Berdasarkan penelitian ini diketahui bahwa profil membaca siswa Sekolah Dasar yang berinteraksi dengan buku teks pelajaran berstandar nasional (pelajaran Bahasa Indonesia, Matematika, Sains, dan Pengetahuan Sosial) adalah sebagai berikut:
(a) Keragaman kegiatan membaca di luar jam pelajaran yang dilakukan siswa masih kurang. Bacaan yang dibaca setiap hari oleh siswa kelas 1-2 adalah buku komik dan judul-judul acara televisi terutama dilakukan oleh siswa laki-laki/perempuan kelas 3-6. Namun, siswa kelas 3-6 pun pada umumnya setiap hari membaca buku teks pelajaran. Bacaan fiksi (cerita) hampir tidak pernah dibaca oleh siswa 1-2 dan siswa laki-laki kelas 3-6, demikian pula diketahui bahwa khusus kelas 3-6 pada umumnya tidak pernah membaca informasi dari internet. Bacaan yang dibaca sekali dalam seminggu pada umumnya berupa majalah atau koran. Selain itu, jenis bacaan yang dibaca sekali saja dalam seminggu oleh siswa putri kelas 1-2 dan siswa kelas 3-6 adalah komik, buku pelajaran dibaca sekali dalam seminggu oleh siswa kelas 1-2, dan siswa putri kelas 3-6 membaca buku cerita pada umumnya dilakukan hanya sekali saja dalam seminggu.
(b) Kegiatan membaca atau membaca kembali buku teks pelajaran di luar jam pelajaran sekolah dilakukan para siswa masih rendah. Kegiatan membaca dan membaca kembali buku teks pelajaran di luar jam pelajaran sekolah memiliki kekerapan lebih kecil dibandingkan dengan kekerapan mereka menonton televisi. Hal ini berarti bahwa kegiatan menonton televisi yang dilakukan siswa lebih dominan dilakukan daripada kegiatan membaca atau membaca kembali buku teks pelajaran di luar jam pelajaran sekolah. Hal yang sangat menarik diketahui bahwa dalam menonton televisi siswa kelas 1-2 perempuan dan siswa kelas 3-6 laki-laki lebih banyak daripada siswa laki-laki kelas 1-2 dan perempuan kelas 3-6. Dalam hal membaca fiksi (cerita pendek/novel, puisi, atau drama) pun masih sedikit dilakukan. Kegiatan membaca buku jenis fiksi ini pada umumnya dilakukan sekali-sekali saja dengan jumlah waktu yang lebih sedikit daripada kegiatan mereka menonton televisi. Demikian pula dengan membaca informasi dari koran, majalah, atau bacaan di internet (khusus kelas 4-6) masih sangat sedikit dilakukan oleh para siswa.

2) Keterbacaan Berdasarkan Karakteristik Siswa
Dari kajian keterbacaan berdasarkan interaksi antara bacaan (buku teks pelajaran) dengan siswa yang ditinjau berdasarkan keterpahaman kosakata, kalimat, paragraf, jenis teks/bacaan; kemenarikan buku teks pelajaran; dan kemudahan dalam memahami sistematika penyajian diperoleh hasil penelitian sebagaimana diuraikan berikut.
(a) Keterpahaman Kosakata
Pemahaman siswa sekolah dasar terhadap penggunaan kosakata dalam buku teks pelajaran bergantung pada pengenalan mereka terhadap kosakata itu. Artinya, pemahaman mereka akan baik jika kosakata yang digunakan dalam buku Bahasa Indonesia, Sains, dan Pengetahuan Sosial itu secara berurutan sering didengar (21,40%), kosakata tersebut sudah dikenal (20,42%), dan sering digunakan (16,22%). Ini menunjukkan bahwa kondisi siswa SD pada umumnya memahami kosakata itu karena mereka sering mendengar, mengenal, dan sering menggunakan kosakata tersebut. Namun demikian, khusus untuk mata pelajaran Matematika justru tingkat pemahaman siswa terhadap kosakata yang digunakan karena kosakata tersebut sudah dikenal (23,0%) oleh mereka dalam kehidupan sehari-hari.
(b) Keterpahaman Kalimat
Pemahaman siswa sekolah dasar terhadap penggunaan kalimat dalam buku teks pelajaran bergantung pada keintiman kalimat tersebut dengan siswa. Artinya, jika kalimat-kalimat itu sudah sering dikenal oleh siswa maka akan semakin tinggi keterbacaan buku teks pelajaran tersebut. Namun, berbeda dengan hal ini, secara khusus untuk pelajaran Matematika suatu teks memiliki keterbacaan tinggi apabila kalimat tersebut disajikan secara efektif, lugas, jelas dan mengungkapkan makna atau tujuan yang dimaksudkan kalimat tersebut. Hal ini pula yang menjadi penentu kedua dari tingkat keterbacaan buku teks pelajaran.
Hal yang harus diperhatikan bahwa keterbacaan buku teks pelajaran ditentukan pula oleh kesederhanaan kalimat yang digunakan. Semakin sederhana kalimat yang disusun dalam buku teks pelajaran maka akan semakin tinggi pula keterbacaan buku teks tersebut. Apabila dalam buku teks tersebut digunakan kalimat yang sulit atau belum dikenal siswa, maka keterbacaannya menjadi rendah. Namun, akan menjadi tinggi keterbacaannya jika kalimat tersebut diikuti dengan kalimat-kalimat atau uraian yang berfungsi sebagai penjelas serta kalimat tersebut sering didengar oleh para siswa, terutama pada mata pelajaran Pengetahuan Sosial.
(c) Keterpahaman Paragraf
Pemahaman siswa sekolah dasar terhadap penggunaan paragraf dalam buku teks pelajaran bergantung pada letak gagasan utama dalam paragraf tersebut. Apabila dalam suatu paragraf menempatkan gagasan utama pada awal paragraf maka siswa lebih dapat memahami paragraf tersebut. Artinya, paragraf-paragraf yang disusun dengan menempatkan gagasan pokok atau pikiran utama pada awal paragraf lebih dapat dipahami siswa makna paragraf tersebut dan memiliki keterbacaan tinggi. Tingkat keterbacaan juga sangat ditentukan oleh ketersediaan gambar atau ilustrasi yang mengiringi paragraf tersebut. Dengan demikian, selain menempatkan pikiran utama atau gagasan utama pada awal paragraf, kehadiran gambar atau ilustrasi yang mengiringi paragraf tersebut dapat mempertinggi keterpahaman siswa terhadap paragraf yang digunakan.

(d) Keterpahaman Teks/Bacaan
Pada umumnya teks atau wacana yang digunakan dalam buku berstandar nasional dapat dipahami (64,55% atau 373 responden). Apabila ditinjau berdasarkan bentuk-bentuk wacana yang digunakan dikaitkan dengan karakteristik bacaan yang dianggap mudah dipahami siswa ditemukan bahwa alasan suatu teks/bacaan mudah dipahami jika bacaan tersebut disajikan dengan menggunakan bentuk wacana eksposisi dan narasi atau argumentasi.
Hal yang sangat menarik adalah jika ditinjau berdasarkan jenis mata pelajaran, diketahui bahwa kelompok mata pelajaran eksakta (Matematika dan Sains) bacaan yang mudah dipahami jika disajikan dengan menggunakan wacana eksposisi dan argumentasi, sedangkan untuk kelompok mata pelajaran sosial (Bahasa Indonesia dan Pengetahuan Sosial) jika disajikan dengan menggunakan wacana narasi dan eksposisi.
Apabila ditinjau berdasarkan tingkatan pendidikan, diketahui bahwa tingkat kemudahan dalam memahami teks/bacaan, maka berdasarkan siswa kelas rendah (1-2) suatu bacaan dianggap mudah dipahami jika bacaan tersebut disajikan dengan menggunakan wacana narasi dan eksposisi, sedangkan menurut kelas tinggi jika disajikan dengan menggunakan wacana eksposisi dan argumentasi.
Berdasarkan klasifikasi jender responden, diketahui bahwa menurut siswa perempuan suatu teks mudah dipahami jika disajikan dengan menggunakan jenis wacana narasi dan eksposisi, sedangkan menurut siswa laki-laki jika disajikan dengan menggunakan wacana eksposisi, narasi, dan argumentasi.

(e) Kemenarikan Penyajian Buku Teks Pelajaran
Berdasarkan kajian diketahui bahwa buku teks berstandar nasional pada umumnya sangat menarik yang diungkapkan oleh 97% siswa yang menjadi responden. Adapun ketika dikonfirmasi kepada siswa alasan pernyataan tersebut dinyatakan bahwa buku teks pelajaran berstandar nasional menarik karena menggunakan gambar atau ilustrasi yang memperjelas isi materi yang disajikan dan menggunakan huruf/bacaan yang jelas dan terbaca, serta bahasa yang mudah dipahami.
Kemenarikan buku teks pelajaran berstandar nasional jika ditinjau berdasarkan karakteristik responden, alasan tersebut hampir sama, kecuali ketika responden diklasifikasikan berdasarkan tingkatan kelas. Responden kelas tinggi (kelas 3-6) menyatakan bahwa kemenarikan buku teks pelajaran berstandar nasional adalah karena disajikan dengan menggunakan bahasa yang mudah dipahami dan menggunakan jilid dan gambar berwarna, sedangkan menurut responden kelas rendah (1-2) karena menggunakan gambar yang memperjelas isi dan menggunakan huruf yang terbaca dan jelas.

(f) Kemudahan Memahami Sistematika Penyajian
Berdasarkan sistematika penyajian buku teks pelajaran berstandar nasional diketahui bahwa pada umumnya buku teks pelajaran itu mudah dipahami karena penyajian suatu materi tersebut disertai gambar, dikaitkan dengan pengetahuan siswa, dan disesuaikan dengan pengalaman siswa.
Namun, apabila ditinjau berdasarkan jenis pelajaran diperoleh informasi bahwa penyajian buku teks pelajaran Bahasa Indonesia mudah dipahami karena materinya disesuaikan dengan pengalaman siswa. Penyajian buku teks pelajaran Pengetahuan Sosial dan Sains dianggap mudah dipahami karena penyajian materinya disertai gambar. Sementara itu, buku teks pelajaran Matematika dianggap mudah dipahami karena penyajian materi dalam buku tersebut dikaitkan dengan pengetahuan siswa.

3. Keterbacaan Berdasarkan Penilaian Guru
Berdasarkan pengalaman guru dalam menggunakan buku teks pelajaran Bahasa Indonesia, Matematika, Sains, dan Pengetahuan Sosial diketahui bahwa rata-rata keterbacaan buku teks pelajaran Bahasa Indonesia memiliki tingkat keterbacaan sebesar 3,52. Buku teks pelajaran Matematika memiliki tingkat keterbacaan sebesar 3,71. Buku teks pelajaran Sains memiliki tingkat keterbacaan sebesar 3,68. Buku teks pelajaran Pengetahuan Sosial memiliki tingkat keterbacaan sebesar 3,22. Keterbacaan buku teks pelajaran Bahasa Indonesia, Matematika, Sains, dan Pengetahuan Sosial berdasarkan penilaian guru-guru yang mengajar di wilayah Indonesia bagian Barat diketahui bahwa rata-rata keterbacaan buku teks pelajaran berstandar sebesar 3,67 sedangkan guru-guru di wilayah Indonesia bagian Timur 3,50.
Para guru memberikan penilaian terhadap keterbacaan buku teks pelajaran sekolah dasar yang berstandar dengan skor rata-rata sebesar 3,58 dari skor ideal 5,0. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa secara umum para guru menyatakan bahwa buku teks pelajaran berstandar memiliki kualitas keterbacaan yang tinggi. Hal ini dapat diketahui dari skor rata-rata nilai keterbacaan yang diberikan guru berkaitan dengan pengalamannya dalam kegiatan pembelajaran, pada umumnya di atas skor rata-rata nilai keterbacaan. Hanya penilaian ini dianggap kurang komprehensif karena dilakukan berdasarkan buku-buku Sekolah Dasar berstandar nasional yang digunakan di sekolah tersebut.
Hasil penilaian yang dilakukan guru ini selanjutnya dilakukan justifikasi oleh peneliti melalui desk study dengan melakukan random sampling terhadap 37 buku teks pelajaran Sekolah Dasar yang berstandar nasional. Berdasarkan kajian desk study diketahui bahwa rata-rata keterbacaan buku-buku teks pelajaran berstandar untuk Sekolah Dasar memiliki nilai 3,45. Dengan demikian, skor rerata ini tidak berbeda jauh dengan penilaian yang dilakukan guru atau tidak memiliki bias yang terlalu jauh.
Berdasarkan kajian ini diketahui bahwa pada umumnya buku teks pelajaran berstandar belum dilengkapi dengan buku Pedoman Pendidik, sehingga skor yang berhubungan dengan aspek tersebut sangat kurang. Demikian pula dengan kriteria buku yang dilengkapi dengan work book, pada umumnya buku berstandar tidak dilengkapi dengan buku kerja.

F. Simpulan
Dari penelitian keterbacaan buku teks pelajaran untuk Sekolah Dasar dalam mata pelajaran Bahasa Indonesia, Matematika, Sains, dan Pengetahuan Sosial diperoleh simpulan sebagai berikut:
(3) Dalam melakukan studi tentang profil membaca siswa Sekolah Dasar yang berinteraksi dengan buku teks pelajaran berstandar, diketahui bahwa:
(a) Kegiatan membaca yang dilakukan peserta didik setiap hari di luar jam pelajaran sekolah untuk kelas 1-2 adalah membaca komik dan untuk kelas 3-6 adalah acara-acara televisi dan membaca buku teks pelajaran. Siswa kelas 1-2 pada umumnya membaca kembali buku pelajaran sekali saja dalam seminggu. Peserta didik hampir tidak pernah membaca informasi dari internet dan fiksi (buku cerita rekaan), kecuali siswa perempuan kelas 3-6 yang membaca fiksi sekali dalam seminggu. Kegiatan membaca informasi dari majalah atau koran pada umumnya dilakukan sekali saja dalam seminggu.
(b) Kegiatan membaca yang dilakukan peserta didik di luar jam pelajaran sekolah memiliki porsi lebih rendah daripada menonton televisi, terutama yang dilakukan oleh siswa perempuan kelas 1-2 dan siswa laki-laki kelas 3-6. Berdasarkan kekerapannya diketahui bahwa membaca buku jenis fiksi, informasi dari koran, majalah, dan internet cenderung dilakukan sekali-sekali saja, dengan porsi yang lebih rendah daripada menonton televisi.
(4) Keterbacaan buku teks pelajaran berstandar bergantung pada keterpahaman kosakata, kalimat, paragraf dan jenis bacaan yang digunakan; kemenarikan penyajian buku tersebut; dan kemudahan menggunakan sistematika penyajian materi.
(a) Keterpahaman kosakata dalam buku teks pelajaran ditentukan oleh seringnya kosakata tersebut didengar dan sudah dikenal oleh siswa. Keterpahaman kalimat dalam buku teks pelajaran ditentukan oleh tingkat keintiman dan kesederhanaan kalimat tersebut bagi siswa, jika kalimat-kalimat dalam buku teks sudah sering dikenal oleh siswa atau disajikan dengan susunan yang sederhana maka keterbacaan buku teks pelajaran tersebut semakin tinggi. Keterpahaman paragraf dalam buku teks pelajaran ditentukan oleh letak pikiran utama atau gagasan pokok yang disajikan pada awal paragraf dan ketersediaan gambar atau ilustrasi yang mengiringi paragraf tersebut. Keterpahaman teks atau bacaan buku berstandar pada umumnya tinggi, karena menggunakan jenis wacana narasi, eksposisi, dan argumentasi. Keterpahaman bacaan dalam buku teks pelajaran eksakta (Matematika dan Sains) tinggi jika menggunakan jenis wacana eksposisi dan argumentasi, sedangkan mata pelajaran sosial (Bahasa Indonesia dan Pengetahuan Sosial) menggunakan jenis wacana narasi dan eksposisi.
(b) Kemenarikan penyajian buku-buku teks pelajaran berstandar adalah sangat tinggi, karena menggunakan gambar atau ilustrasi yang memperjelas isi materi yang disajikan dan menggunakan huruf atau bacaan yang jelas dan terbaca, serta bahasa yang mudah dipahami. Buku teks pelajaran yang menggunakan bahasa yang mudah dipahami, menggunakan jilid atau gambar berwarna, menggunakan gambar dan ilustrasi yang dapat memperjelas isi, serta menggunakan huruf yang terbaca dan jelas memiliki daya tarik yang menentukan keterbacaan buku tersebut.
(c) Kemudahan dalam memahami sistematika penyajian pun turut menentukan keterbacaan buku teks pelajaran berstandar. Kemudahan dalam memahami itu karena penyajian suatu materi tersebut disertai gambar, dikaitkan dengan pengetahuan siswa, dan disesuaikan dengan pengalaman siswa sebagai pengguna buku.
(5) Keterbacaan buku teks pelajaran sekolah dasar berstandar berdasarkan penilaian guru yang dihubungkan dengan pembelajaran, diketahui memiliki keterbacaan tinggi (3,58 dari 5,0). Pada umumnya buku teks pelajaran belum dilengkapi dengan panduan pendidik dan buku kerja sebagai pendukung bagi kegiatan pembelajaran.

G. Rekomendasi
Berdasarkan simpulan di atas, pada bagian ini disampaikan rekomendasi sebagai berikut:
(1) Untuk meningkatkan keterbacaan buku teks pelajaran, selain perlu dilakukan peningkatan kualitas keterbacaan buku teks pelajaran berstandar, diperlukan pula peningkatan kualitas profil membaca siswa. Oleh karena itu, seharusnya guru selalu memotivasi siswa untuk selalu membaca setiap hari, baik yang berhubungan dengan materi pelajaran maupun untuk mencari informasi dari koran, surat kabar, maupun internet. Dalam rangka meningkatkan intensitas membaca buku-buku cerita (fiksi), sebaiknya guru menyampaikan manfaat yang dapat diraih jika siswa melakukan kegiatan membaca jenis teks tersebut.
(2) Dalam rangka mengurangi porsi menonton televisi dengan kegiatan membaca siswa seharusnya setiap hari siswa dibekali kuis, latihan, atau kegiatan yang dapat mendorong mereka meningkatkan porsi membaca sehingga profil membaca para siswa sekolah dasar semakin baik.
(3) Untuk meningkatkan keterbacaan buku teks pelajaran sekolah dasar berstandar sebaiknya jika penulis atau penerbit buku teks akan melakukan revisi buku tersebut dapat mengganti penggunaan kosakata yang jarang didengar dan belum dikenal oleh siswa; mengganti penggunaan kalimat yang belum intim dengan siswa dan kalimat yang kompleks; menata kembali paragraf-paragraf yang dapat diubah menjadi paragraf deduktif dan melengkapinya dengan gambar dan ilustrasi; menyesuaikan bentuk wacana dengan jenis wacana yang memiliki keterbacaan tinggi bagi siswa.
(4) Dalam upaya meningkatkan keterbacaan buku teks pelajaran dapat dilakukan penulis atau penerbit dengan menggunakan gambar atau ilustrasi yang memperjelas isi materi yang disajikan, menggunakan huruf atau bacaan yang jelas dan terbaca, dan bahasa yang mudah dipahami siswa. Selain itu, dalam menata sistematika penyajian, sebaiknya penyajian suatu materi disertai gambar, dikaitkan dengan pengetahuan siswa, dan disesuaikan dengan pengalaman siswa agar dapat meningkatkan keterbacaan buku tersebut.

Dari penelitian ini dapat disampaikan pula rekomendasi hasil penelitian sebagai berikut:
(1) Dalam rangka meningkatkan penggunaan buku teks pelajaran berstandar oleh guru maka direkomendasikan agar penerbit melengkapi buku teks dengan panduan pendidik dan memberikan kejelasan tentang kelengkapan buku kerja yang perlu disiapkan dalam pembelajaran.
(2) Penelitian ini menggunakan dua jenis instrumen untuk siswa, yaitu untuk siswa kelas 1-2 dan kelas 3-6 namun terdapat kendala ketika pengguna instrumen mengukur siswa kelas 1-2 yang masih belum dapat membaca. Demikian pula, ketika melakukan penelitian, pada sekolah tertentu para siswa dibantu guru dalam memberikan jawaban, padahal seharusnya guru hanya bertugas mengarahkan siswa kelas rendah dalam menentukan jawaban yang dimaksudkan siswa. Oleh karena itu untuk penelitian berikutnya direkomendasikan agar instrumen untuk siswa perlu lebih disederhanakan lagi, disesuaikan dengan kondisi dan kemampuan siswa kelas rendah. Instrumen tentang profil membaca siswa perlu disederhanakan lagi dengan tingkat keragaman dan kekerapan yang lebih rasional.
(3) Data tentang penilaian guru terhadap buku teks pelajaran sekolah dasar berstandar masih kurang komprehensif. Keterbatasan ini terjadi karena sebaran buku teks pelajaran tersebut tidak menyeluruh pada seluruh wilayah yang dijadikan sebagai subjek penelitian. Penilaian guru terhadap buku teks cenderung subjektif dengan sumber data terbatas sehingga diperlukan penelitian lanjutan dengan menambah keragaman buku teks berstandar dan jumlah guru yang menggunakan buku tersebut. Oleh karena itu, direkomendasikan agar penelitian selanjutnya dapat meningkatkan keragaman buku teks pelajaran berstandar yang dinilai oleh guru.
(4) Dalam penelitian ini masih belum banyak mendapatkan informasi yang berhubungan dengan interaksi pembaca dengan bacaan. Oleh karena itu, direkomendasikan penelitian lanjutan dengan meningkatkan kadar kajian pada interaksi tersebut yang meliputi kajian terhadap tingkat pengenalan kata (word recognising), pemahaman (understanding) terhadap aspek bahasa buku (wacana, paragraf, kalimat, kata), kemudahan (easily) memahami pesan, kemenarikan (interesting) aspek grafika buku (gambar, warna, sajian/lay out) dan tanggapan (responding) peserta didik dalam membaca buku teks pelajaran sebagai sumber belajar dan pembelajaran.


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